Question: Why Do Journalists Argue That Freedom Of The Press Requires That They Protect Confidential Sources?

What laws do journalists have to follow?

When writing a story, all journalists must consider both legal and ethical issues.

Laws are in place to restrict journalists from reporting things which may damage or harm other people or organisations.

Ethics means doing what is ethically and morally right, regardless of what the law might say..

How are journalists protected?

Journalists are protected only as long as they do not take a direct part in the hostilities. News media, even when used for propaganda purposes, enjoy immunity from attacks, except when they are used for military purposes or to incite war crimes, genocide or acts of violence.

Can a journalist be forced to reveal confidential sources UK?

One of the principles laid down by the NUJ’s code of conduct is that “a journalist shall protect confidential sources of information”. There are no exceptions. Any order for disclosure of sources will therefore force a journalist to consider where his primary duty lies.

What kind of law protects reporters from being forced to reveal their sources?

Definition. A shield law is law that gives reporters protection against being forced to disclose confidential information or sources in state court. There is no federal shield law and state shield laws vary in scope.

Can a journalist reveal their source?

JOURNALISTS must protect their confidential sources if the Press is to safeguard the interests of society. … Even so, courts do attempt to force journalists to reveal their sources.

How do journalists get information?

Sources of information can be people, letters, books, files, films, tapes – in fact, anything which journalists use to put news stories together. Sources are very important if you want to report on events or issues and explain the world to your audience.

What is the press argument in favor of shield laws?

What is the press argument in favor of shield law? A law that protects journalists from being compelled to reveal confidential sources of information.

Can journalists break the law?

Even though the journalists are on good ethical ground, they still don’t have a right to violate the law.”

What are the sources for a reporter?

Put simply, without sources there would be no journalism. As the name implies, a “source” in journalism refers to a source of information from which the reporter garners material to write a story. That includes documentary sources such as written reports, social media, and data dumps via websites such as WikiLeaks.

Do journalists have the right to protect their sources?

The idea behind reporter’s privilege is that journalists have a limited First Amendment right not to be forced to reveal information or confidential news sources in court. Journalists rely on confidential sources to write stories that deal with matters of legitimate public importance.

What are journalists not allowed to do?

Roughly 30 states have passed statutes, called shield laws, allowing journalists to refuse to disclose or testify about confidential or unpublished information, including the identity of sources. The statutes vary significantly from state to state in the scope of their protections.

Is it illegal to have a shield?

The California shield law applies to both the source of information (“confidential sources”) and to “unpublished information” such as notes, out-takes, unpublished photographs and tapes. … On the other hand, when the prosecution seeks information in a criminal law, the shield law is absolute.

What are the three prongs of the reporters privilege test?

The privilege is a qualified one, however, because one seeking the information can compel the journalist to testify by meeting the three-part test described above: relevance of the information, a compelling need for it, and no alternative sources.

What advice should journalists give to sources who demand confidentiality?

If your source demands confidentiality, make sure you intend to maintain confidentiality if you agree. Also, no matter what you decide, it is a good idea to be clear with your source about what he or she should expect with respect to confidentiality.

How do I anonymously report to the media?

There are a lot of ways to do that.Send your materials through physical mail. … Call from a phone number unconnected to you. … Use Signal for private messaging. … Before looking into news organizations, consider using the Tor Browser for greater privacy. … Use a whistleblower submission system.

Why do journalists use anonymous sources?

Journalists defend the use of anonymous sources for a variety of reasons: Access. Some sources refuse to share stories without the shield of anonymity, including many government officials. Protection from reprisal or punishment.

What is a shield law for journalists?

Shield laws are statutes that provide journalists either an absolute or qualified privilege to refuse to disclose sources used or information obtained in the course of news gathering.

What does deep background mean?

Lee: “Deep background” is a term commonly used by officials at the highest levels of government who want to disclose information to the press without attribution. Such material can be published, provided there is no identification of the source or how the material was obtained.